RC Buildings – Part 1: Pedernales, Manta, Portoviejo and Bahía de Caráquez

May 1, 2016 by  
Filed under Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Ana Gabriela Haro* and Diego Aguirre*
*North Carolina State University

On April 16, 2016 a 7.8M earthquake struck the central coast of Ecuador. More than 650 people were killed and 4,605 people were injured during the first 72 hours. Over 22,420 people lost their homes and 166 schools presented medium to severe damage according to the Secretariat for Risk Management of Ecuador.

Ductile reinforced concrete frame structures behave properly during an earthquake when nonstructural damage is also considered during the design process. This system is a common practice in Ecuador, however the lack of capacity protected-based design procedures influenced most of the reported collapses in low rise buildings and houses, where structural engineers are not usually included throughout the design and construction phases.

Pedernales

Pedernales is a tourist town located 22 miles from the epicenter, is one of the most affected areas. About 80% of the infrastructure and buildings were affected there. The following pictures show part of the damage captured in this town, in which the lack of detailing is evident.

Pictures courtesy of Consult Geo, Ecuador:

DSC_0031

DSC_0063

DSC_0067

DSC_0078

DSC_0079

DSC_0082

DSC_0101

DSC_0106

DSC_0110

DSC_0114

DSC_0111

DSC_0122

DSC_0129 (1)

DSC_0132

DSC_0133 (1)

DSC_0137

DSC_0134


Image:
 http://i0.wp.com/semanariolaprensa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/terremoto-hotel-royal.jpg


Photos:
http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2016/04/1700-people-are-still-missing-after-ecuadors-earthquake/479163/

Aerial view of Pedernales, one of Ecuador's worst-hit towns, taken on April 18, 2016 two days after a 7.8-magnitude quake hit the country. Rescuers and desperate families clawed through the rubble Monday to pull out survivors of an earthquake that killed at least 413 people and destroyed towns in a tourist area of Ecuador. / AFP / Pablo COZZAGLIO (Photo credit should read PABLO COZZAGLIO/AFP/Getty Images)

A collapsed building is pictured in Pedernales, after an earthquake struck off Ecuador's Pacific coast, April 18, 2016. REUTERS/Guillermo Granja - RTX2AIQF

Aerial view of Pedernales, one of Ecuador's worst-hit towns, taken on April 18, 2016 two days after a 7.8-magnitude quake hit the country. Rescuers and desperate families clawed through the rubble Monday to pull out survivors of an earthquake that killed at least 413 people and destroyed towns in a tourist area of Ecuador. / AFP / Pablo COZZAGLIO (Photo credit should read PABLO COZZAGLIO/AFP/Getty Images)

Video: https://youtu.be/okCsJJNibHM – El Universo (www.eluniverso.com)

 

Manta

Manta, on the other hand, is a modern city located 107 miles from the epicenter. Some of its medium high rise reinforced concrete frame buildings reported nonstructural damage. Low rise buildings like the most important public hospital in the city has being declared unsafe and probably will be demolish once the evaluations conclude.

Pictures courtesy of Vinicio Suarez:

IMG_5818

IMG_5819

IMG_5820

IMG_5822

IMG_5824

IMG_5826

IMG_5832

IMG_5862

IMG_5913

IMG_5918

IMG_5976

IMG_5989

IMG_5990

IMG_5991

IMG_5992

IMG_5994

IMG_5996 (1)

IMG_5998

IMG_5999

IMG_6001

IMG_6002

IMG_6003

IMG_6004

IMG_6005

IMG_6007

IMG_6010

IMG_6011

IMG_6012

IMG_6013

Photo: IBT News (http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/ecuador-earthquake-survivors-sleep-makeshift-shelters-after-thousands-homes-are-destroyed-1555364)

Capture1


Photo:
The Guardian (http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2016/apr/18/ecuador-earthquake-rescue-operation-in-pictures)

Capture2

 

Photos: El Universo

Capture5

Capture6

Capture7

Capture3

Capture4

 

Photo: Hospital del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS) (https://www.info7.mx/foto/660000/669237_sismos-ecuador-japon-no-tienen-relacion-mexico-unam.jpg)

 

Portoviejo

Portoviejo, capital of Manabí (province), is a big city located 105 miles from the epicenter. Low to medium rise buildings presented significant damage as noticed in the following pictures.

Pictures courtesy of Vinicio Suarez.

IMG_5753

IMG_5755

IMG_5756

IMG_5758

IMG_5760

IMG_5761

IMG_5763

IMG_5767

IMG_5771

IMG_5782

IMG_5812

 

Photo: CB 24 NOTICIAS CENTROAMERICA (http://cb24.tv/un-nuevo-temblor-sacude-ecuador-y-provoca-alarma-entre-socorristas/)

Capture1

Photo: El Universo (http://www.eluniverso.com/noticias/2016/04/20/nota/5535459/socorristas-20-paises-ayudan-busqueda-sobrevivientes-manabi)

Capture2

 

Bahía de Caráquez

Bahía de Caráquez is a small city located 76 miles from the epicenter, where some medium rise buildings reported damage on infill walls, other collapsed or partially collapsed, and some low rise buildings suffered severe damage.

Pictures from FB:

IMG_7909

IMG_7908

IMG_7905

IMG_7903

IMG_7902

 

Photo: El Universo (Jorge Peñafiel – https://www.facebook.com/eluniversoec/photos/a.10154282650129560.1073742116.61449504559/10154282650834560/?type=3&theater)

Capture1

 

More evidence of the damage is being collected at the time this post was published.

 

Comments

One Response to “RC Buildings – Part 1: Pedernales, Manta, Portoviejo and Bahía de Caráquez”

  1. Alfredo Urich on May 5th, 2016 1:52 pm

    It may be noted the important role of the “non structural” masonry walls in seismic-resistant performance. This is an issue that should be reviewed in the codes and construction practices of Latin American countries and many others with similar techniques. Some thoughts on this subject were presented at the last World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2012) for the case of Venezuela; I recommend its review at the following link: http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/ WCEE2012_4518.pdf. Unfortunately the consequences in Ecuador were much more disastrous.

Feel free to leave a comment...





*